Sunday, May 24, 2020

The Main Functions Of The Constitution - 882 Words

The Constitution has three major functions. The first function is that it creates the national government which includes the checks and balances it balances out the three branches of government to make sure one does not over power the other, those three branches include; the legislative, the executive and the judicial branch. The second function of the constitution is to divide the power between the federal and the state government making sure each side gets to have a say but to also be sure one does not over power the other. The last function of the constitution is that it protects the individual rights of American citizens. The government is divided into three branches, the executive branch is the branch that is invested in the president and the president carries out federal laws and recommend new ones, the legislative branch is given to the congress which includes the house of representatives and the senate both working on making the laws, and the judicial branch is involved with the supreme court to interpret the laws and deciding case involving states rights. The way the checks and balances work is they have a system of what every branch does and their powers. Congress passes the laws but the President has the right to veto them, the executive branch deals with criminal cases and the courts must try them, the president appoints federal judges but the Senate has to confirm them. The division of federal and state power is called federalism. The federal government hasShow MoreRelatedThe Main Functions Of A State s Constitution1045 Words   |  5 PagesThe constitution is a written document by which the state is run or operated. It is extremely significant as it sets the foundation and provides the fundamental instructions on how the local government and the people ought to function. The four functions of a state’s constitution is to state where the power of political institutions originate from, assign powers, construct a system where checks and balan ce is put in place within the government, and sets the limits of political power. To sum it upRead MoreThe Constitution Of Indian Constitution Essay1280 Words   |  6 Pagesâ€Å"Constitution is not a mere lawyers document, it is a vehicle of Life, and its spirit is always the spirit of Age.† -B. R. Ambedkar. Constitution is believed to be supreme law of a country. The word ‘Constitution’ is a French origin which is generally used for regulation and orders. Constitution means body of fundamental principles or established precedents according to which a state or other organisation is governed. Every country has its own constitution, which describes about duties, rules andRead MoreCritical Analysis of Good-bye, Montesquieu by Bruce Ackerman1454 Words   |  6 Pagesclosely related without this any constitution would have been declared null and void. This three ways model of separation of powers is the most important constitutional insight and this is the only reason that various founding members of the various constitutions have adopted this theory with all the changes making it fit for the changing times. IMPORTANCE OF THE SEPARATION OF POWER:- The structure of doctrine of separation of power is very rigid and this is one of the main reasons that it is not acceptedRead MoreRole of the United States Constitution832 Words   |  4 PagesUnited States Constitution The role of the constitution plays an important part of the everyday life in the United States. It is a part of every person’s life even if they do not realize it. It usually has impacted your life in the past or even at every moment in someone’s life. â€Å"Although the Constitution created a new federal government, it took a courageous, brilliant, and farseeing Supreme Court chief justice to help realize the framers’ vision.† (Microsoft, 2007) The Constitution itself providesRead MoreRole and Functions of Law842 Words   |  4 PagesRole and Functions of Law Introduction Over time man has evolved from an uncivilized primate to a technological driven working machine, but that evolution could not have occurred without law. Law gives the backbone a society needs to flourish in a civilized and more or less positive way. Although laws in most societies are not perfect, they keep society members in check and prevent chaos from running amok. In this paper I will discuss the major roles and functions of law will be discussed includingRead MoreFoundations of the U.S. Federal Government Worksheet Essay735 Words   |  3 Pagesand their entities. U.S. Constitution True or False 1. The Tenth Amendment limits the power of states. FALSE 2. The Constitution signed in 1787 contained the Bill of Rights. FALSE 3. The Constitution created a system of dual sovereigntyRead MoreThe Constitution Of The United States1337 Words   |  6 PagesA constitution is defined as the system of fundamental principles according to which a nation, state, or those of such nature are governed. The Constitution of the United States of America is the supreme law over our nation as a set of rules in which our country is run. In addition to following the rules of the national constitution Texas also has its own constitution as wall as every other state’s; Texas’s is among the longest. Similarly to the United States Constitution, the structure and functionRead MoreUS Constitution Then and Now Essay1081 Words   |  5 Pageswas founded on a written set of principles known as the Constitution. There have only been 17 amendments, or changes, since ratification. While the United States has evolved with time the role and function of the government, and the way the government guarantees civil rights and liberties, has also evolved. These changes have resulted from changing or broadening of the interpretation of the constitution. Although the core of the constitution has not changed, it has expanded and its interpretationRead MoreThe Un Was Form After World War II856 Words   |  4 Pagesnation countries to fight the Axis Power. The UN and its system consisted of six main basic organs that operate the system and other subsidiary agencies. The GA, the Secretariat, the International Council and Justice, the EOCSOC, the Security Council and the Trusteeship are the main basic organs that operate the system. The UN also consist a document of constitution, which is called Charter. This document constitution held the responsible of each of the body organ that are operating within the organizationRead MoreFunctions Of The American Government1689 Words   |  7 Pages1. Three functions of the American government There are several functions of American Government that are important to the success of this country but I am going to choose three that I think are the most crucial. One of the function of the American government that is important is to protect their sovereign territory and their people and to provide national defense. I think this is a key function of the American government. This protects citizens from both at home and abroad from acts that endanger

Wednesday, May 13, 2020

Essay on Great Religions And Philosophies. Greek...

Great Religions and Philosophies. : Greek Philosophy. nbsp;nbsp;nbsp;nbsp;nbsp;In the 6th century B.C, there began a dualism in Greek Philosophy. The development of Greek Philosophy became a compromise between Greek monistic and oriental influences, in other words, a combination of intellectualism and mysticism. Thus began the pre-Socratic philosophy. The interests of pre- Socratic philosophers were centered on the world that surrounds man, the Cosmos. This was during the time of great internal and external disturbances in the Greek society, as it was right after the Peloponnesian war. The pre-Socratic era of Greek Philosophy came to an end when the Sophists turned their attention to man himself, delving into the moral and mental†¦show more content†¦Homeric songs tells stories of how man realizes that all events are governed by natural laws. In the Homeric world, fantastic beliefs and superstitions governed one important aspect of the ancient Greeks-- immutable fate. Homeric poems reflect the occasional doubts of the ancient Greeks in prophecy, and the observation about the shortness of life, and the suffering of earthly existence. nbsp;nbsp;nbsp;nbsp;nbsp;The great epic writer Hesiods philosophy of life rests on the idea of the deterioration of mankind. Hesiods perspective runs along the idea that according to the will of Zeus, the human world is governed by justice and the animal world is governed by might. Hesiod reflects a society then that were seeking the truth and searching for the morality guidelines. And the human conduct of the ancients Greeks of the time were very much intertwined with the behavior of Nature, for example, if they were morally good, they would be blessed and rewarded with bountiful harvests. However, on the other end of the continuum, when a sin has been committed, such as the unconscious incest of Oedipus, all Nature is affected by the offense of man. nbsp;nbsp;nbsp;nbsp;nbsp;During the period of the Dorian migration, the ancient Greeks were extending their territorial possessions to a greater extent. This brought about a lot ofShow MoreRelated greek philosophy Essay984 Words   |  4 Pages Greek Religion is the beginning to Greek philosophy and the beginning to many great philosophers. The lack of stimulation that Greek religion is the main reason why the study of philosophy became so popular in Greek culture. Philosophy of religion was studied because people like Socrates did not understand why things were and why they had to be only that way. The lack of religion is what led to people and philosophers questioning the ethical choices people followed. Philosophy is a study of beliefsRead MoreAudience About A Culture Or Sub Culture999 Words   |  4 Pagesaudience an insight to the lives of the Ancient Greeks and to teach them about Ancient Greece as a culture (Kendall) Introduction (Reagan) Attention Gainer: Here is a quote from a Greek philosopher, Heraclitus, â€Å"day by day, what you chose, what you think and what you do is who you become†. This quote represents the evolution of Greece from the beginning of Ancient Greek time. Every day, the culture evolved in some way whether it is in architecture, philosophy or any other attribute of culture. ReasonRead MoreEssay on The Spread of Christianity in the Roman Empire1117 Words   |  5 Pageswrote in circa 150 a.d., Wars have so far vanished as to be regarded as legendary events of the past. This peace brought great prosperity to the vast Roman Empire as money was not being spent on costly wars and so materialism became prominent, another consequence was that people now had more time to think about issues such as religion. Another benefit of the Pax Romana was that frontiers were removed and so early missionaries could travel between countries withinRead MoreAnnotated Bibliography On Ancient Greece1107 Words   |  5 Pagesdifferent folktales and myths from Ancient Greece. Do you ever wonder if any of those ancient Myth’s were true? Ever believe that those myths still help shape society today? 1. Burrell, Roy. The Greeks. New York: Oxford University Press, 1989. This book explains how the Minoans helped influence Ancient Greek mythology in many ways. Most people believe that the Ancient Greece used the Minoans and their culture to help shape there society. This book helps with my paper because I want to research howRead MoreXenophanes and His Ideology of God1280 Words   |  5 Pageswere rebellious to the prevailing Greek concepts about Almighty powers, it shows striking resemblance to the existing western philosophy regarding existence of God. According to the Western philosophy, God is one and is an independent entity. Considering the flow of history, Xenophanes can be considered as the compiler of building blocks for present day western philosophy of religion. While disowning the Greek philosophy of religion, he presented the lacking in Greek pantheon. In the later phase ofRead More Roman and Greek Philosophys Influence on Todays Western Culture780 Words   |  4 Pagesand politics were made in the eastern part of the Mediterranean Sea. Greek philosophers were among the first in the West to explore nature in a rational way and to make educated guesses about the creation of the world and the universe. This is why Greece is often referred to as the birthplace of Western culture. The ancient Greeks viewed the world in a way that one would today perhaps describe as holistic. Science, philosophy, art and politics were interwoven and combined into one worldview. MoreoverRead MoreThe Greeks Were Deeply Religious People1434 Words   |  6 PagesThe Greeks were deeply religious people. They worshiped many Gods who they believed appeared in human like form and yet had superhuman strength including ageless beauty. The â€Å"Iliad† and the â€Å"Odyssey,† were cultures earliest surviving examples of Greek literature that told stories of men encountering with a variety of Gods and goddesses. Roman Religion was more practical and less poetical than the Greek religion was however; they both had similar roles and duties. â€Å"The Greek religion was more of someRead MoreGreece and Rome through 1800 B.C. to 476 A.D. Essay1192 Words   |  5 Pages to 476 A.D. THE ANCIENT GREEKS AND ANCIENT ROMANS LIVED THROUGHOUT THE TIMES OF 800B.C. AND 476A.D. THE GREEKS WHO INHABITTED THE CITY-STATES OF SPARTA AND ATHENS, AND THE ROMANS WHO LIVED, OF COURSE, IN ROME. THE GREEKS AND ROMANS WERE DIFFERENT IN THEIR VIEWS OF RELIGION AS SEEN IN ARCHITECTURE, SCULPTURE AND PHILOSOPHY. ARCHITECTURE POST-MODERNISM CAN BE TRACED BACK TO THE SUPREME ARCHITECTURAL ACHIEVEMENTS OF THE GREEKS. THE GREATEST OF THESE WASRead More`` Stolen Legacy, By George James, A Guyanese Historian And Author874 Words   |  4 PagesThroughout time, there have been deep misconceptions on who the fathers of philosophy and greatest contributors to civilization. In the 1954 book, Stolen Legacy, George James, a Guyanese historian and author, argued that the highly acclaimed Greek philosophy actually originated in ancient Egypt. James’ arguments on Ancient Egypt being the basis of Greek philosophy will be discussed as it relates to the goals of Egyptian theory of salvation and Egyptian Mystery system. The Stolen Legacy begins withRead MoreEssay on The Influence of Christianity on Ancient and Modern Greece1657 Words   |  7 Pagesand philosophical traditions of the Greek people to create a church, visibly distinguishable from all other sects and denominations of Christianity.? Christianity has certainly influenced the nation of Greece.? However, it is safe to say that Greek culture has also had a notable effect on the way its people view Christianity.? The purpose of this paper is to examine the mutually significant and interacting influences of the Christian faith on Greece and of the Greek culture on Christianity.

Wednesday, May 6, 2020

Law 421 Week 2 Free Essays

Role and Functions of Law Paper Amber Freetage Law/421 November 19, 2012 Eric Nord No matter where we are in our country, we are surrounded by many of them, and guarded by few. Some are short; some are long but no matter what they control every potential move we make day in and day out. We are talking about laws. We will write a custom essay sample on Law 421 Week 2 or any similar topic only for you Order Now By definition laws are, â€Å"a rule or set of rules, enforceable by the courts, regulating the government of a state, the relationship between the organs of government and the subjects of the state, and the relationship or conduct of subjects towards each other,† (Law. N. d. ). Over the years, our laws have changed and been added to in order to protect not only us as individuals but our businesses as well. Even though there have been limits placed by the U. S. Supreme Court, our Congress still exercises very broad powers to pass laws where the activity being regulated affects interstate commerce in any way (Chapter Two. P. 32). they have the authority to maintain channels of interstate commerce, the instrumentalities of interstate commerce, and the articles moving in interstate commerce. For our business’ this means that the Congress gets to have control or at least the final say with any involvement with vehicles used in shipping, our railways, and our beloved highways. Meaning any business transactions that are from state to state or across country the Congress can step in and change things to accommodate the law. For our business’ that rely on tourists, which many of our ocean front city’s do, it means that the cost for being open, staying open, and selling prices of items may be affected. This is true because Congress has the power to tax the citizenry and to spend the federal government’s money in any way that they see fit, as long as it generates common defense and general welfare. Another use of commerce power is within the Civil Rights Legislation. This commerce power is one that has affected our businesses, schools, and everyday lives because it gave Congress the power to ban any form of discrimination in places of public use (hotels, restaurants, stores). Placing this ban against discrimination allowed everyone the chance to shop, stay, work, and eat wherever they chose because those businesses made purchases or held business activity out of state. â€Å"States often wish to regulate commerce that crosses into their state borders. States are free to regulate commerce so long as (1) it does not impose a discriminatory law (such as a tax) on out-of-state businesses, and (2) the state law is a legitimate effort to regulate health, safety, and welfare,† (Chapter Two. P. 35) While we cannot go into deep detail of every law that regulates and mandates us to maintain a strict lifestyle or to keep a legit business’s doors open it is very important that laws are taken seriously so that lawsuits are prevented and as individuals, we are not put behind bars. While laws can be hard to understand, the ones that pertain to us as people are known or learned from experience or from our teachings. As a business owner take the time to know what guidelines we must follow in order to keep our job. In a previous employment position, knowing the laws came to be very informative. Federal laws are set to every state and no one can change them, except for the President, or Congress if all in agreement or high votes, but get to know the state laws where you reside. In a previous occupation, learning the laws became much easier when pointed in the right direction. As a full time employee, working no less than eight hours a day it became very apparent that I should be entitled to a break of some sort, but was not given one. After a few other employees started to mention this as well, we began to look into what we were supposed to be given as a break. To our surprise in an eight-hour day we should be given no less than a thirty minute break for lunch and two ten minute breaks to use throughout the day, according to the State work laws. However, when we looked through our employee handbook, breaks are not mentioned at all. When we asked management about the issue we were told, â€Å"Your breaks are in between customers. A little extreme but okay so we kept asking and we found out that since North Carolina is a right to work state there is nothing we can do but work as we are scheduled without breaks or be in fear of losing our job all together. So, you see laws are very important to learn and keep up with because you can be getting taken advantage of without even knowing what you are entitled. References Chapter Two: Business and the Constitution (p. 32-35). (n. d. ). Retrieved November 19, 2012 Law. (n. d. ). Collins English Dictionary – Complete Unabridged 10th Edition. Retrieved November 19, 2012, from Dictionary. com How to cite Law 421 Week 2, Essay examples

Monday, May 4, 2020

Media Planning Brand Media Strategy

Question: Discuss about theMedia Planningfor Brand Media Strategy. Answer: As a postgraduate student, I had the opportunity to work as an intern in one of the best motor companies in the world, Volkswagen. I was a planner with respect to Digital Media and had the sole responsibility to work with the clients, agencies, publishers and the intra-departments to meticulously plan and purchase the digital media, which will help the company to have a strong focus on business in the local and national based areas (Young 2014). It helped me in understanding the role that the media planner has in each company and how it is important to the company. My role in the company was to develop and participate in the integrated plans of the media and effectively purchase them where the Media Director would be supervising me. The objectives, strategies and the plans of acquiring those medias needed to be presented to my supervisors in a proper manner so that they would get convinced and put all their faith in me for the best interest of the company (Albarran 2016). Since I was well versed with the research and the media tools like Nielsen NetRatings and DoubleClick, it helped me in executing the media plans in an effective manner. It helped me to plan my actions according to the budgets that were allocated to me by the company. I was responsible to utilize the budget in a proper way by developing a strong relationship with the media partners. The recommendations about the campaigns for the company are given to me by Google Adwords, which helps me in getting a better view of the media campaigns (Katz 2016). When my internship with the company was over, I developed the skills that were required to communicate within the organization and helped me in building a good relationship with the team. I got to know how important it is to work in a team to achieve the target, which is given by the company. It also helped me in gaining more knowledge in social networking, online videos and the business sites of different companies (Wilcox and Reber 2016). Reference List Young, A., 2014.Brand media strategy: integrated communications planning in the digital era. Springer. Albarran, A.B., 2016.Management of electronic and digital media. Nelson Education. Katz, H., 2016.The media handbook: A complete guide to advertising media selection, planning, research, and buying. Routledge. Wilcox, D.L. and Reber, B.H., 2016.Public relations writing and media techniques. Pearson.

Saturday, March 7, 2020

Global Economic Freedom is an issue that we as conscious business people should be aware of. It is not enough just to know the rules and laws that govern the economic system in ones own country.

Global Economic Freedom is an issue that we as conscious business people should be aware of. It is not enough just to know the rules and laws that govern the economic system in ones own country. Global Economic Freedom is an issue that we as conscious business people should be aware of. It is not enough just to know the rules and laws that govern the economic system in one's own country. With the continued expansion in global business it is almost certain that a business dealing with foreign countries will need to have a general idea about the foreign countries economic system and the general rules and laws that govern that economic system. Depending on the country's economic system, whether it is free or not, can have a substantial impact on whether a business can be profitable in a foreign country and therefore will have an influence over whether a company operates or has business relations in a specific country.With this in mind I will discuss what Economic Freedom is and will also examine the national economies of the United Kingdom, which is ranked economically free at #7, and Iran, which is ranked economically repressed at #151.Iran - Dans le dà ©sert, montagnesI will examine these countries by comparing and contrasting the two to determine why the United Kingdom is economically free and why Iran is not economically free.Economic Freedom is defined by the Wall Street Journal as "the difference between financial poverty and financial prosperity." An easy way to understand this concept, as illustrated by the Wall Street Journal, is to look at the Gross Domestic Product per-capita incomes of the countries in question and compare the two. According to the article "Who's Free, Who's Not" in the November 1, 2000 issue of the Wall Street Journal, a repressed economic country's GDP per-capita income is around $2,800 per year compared to the GDP per-capita income of an economically free country, which is around $21,200 per year. If we look at the countries under examination we see that...

Wednesday, February 19, 2020

Persecution of Women in the Middle East Essay Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 1000 words

Persecution of Women in the Middle East - Essay Example "Many Christian women live in restricted countries where Christianity is not tolerated--over 200 million Christians in 80 countries worldwide are persecuted because of their faith. Women of the Way is "a program of Open Doors mobilizing women to become strategically involved in strengthening persecuted Christians" and works to educate and minister to these women, whose social situations often prohibit them from receiving Christian materials or speaking out freely about their faith." (Persecuted Women) Women are still considered the weaker sex in the Middle East and they are oppressed day in, day out. Women are primarily oppressed because of their faith in Christianity. Many Christian women have had to bear the brunt of this and many continue to face the consequences of their religious beliefs. It is really sad that these women can't be helped; it is high time to put these women out of their misery. They sink into despair when they are ostracized or persecuted. Some of them are even k illed because of their faith in Christianity, this is unacceptable and something has to be done about this sooner rather than later. Islam is misunderstood by the Muslims and they tend to punish the women, they end up banishing these poor women. They inflict pain upon them and they fail to realize the real values of Islam. Religious belief is the most important reason because of which the women in the Middle East are persecuted. ... This has been a very popular practice in the Middle East; women must be protected at all costs and they must be given much better treatment than what they are receiving. "Under the Islamic Republic of Iran, discrimination and segmentation on the basis of religion and gender have been institutionalized in the constitution, government policies, and state ideology. The system explicitly favors men over women, Muslims over non-Muslims, and Shiite Muslims over other Muslim sects.The constitution and the Shari'a-based penal and civil codes, especially those sections pertaining to family and personal status, legalize the subordination of women, treating them as second-class citizens with unequal rights. Women's rights activists have launched widely publicized equal-rights campaigns that have been successful within the parameters established by the theocracy. However, the overall legal framework remains discriminatory, with the state's theocratic underpinnings consistently negating its progr essive and democratic elements." (Access to Justice) Islam restricts women from wearing revealing clothes and any woman found wearing revealing clothes is often persecuted. These draconian laws are only for women, no such laws exist for men in the Middle East. Women are targeted in the name of Islam; Islam never supports persecution of women. Human beings have started deriving satisfaction by inflicting pain upon other human beings. This practice of persecution goes to reflect the pain inflicting tendencies in place; women get exploited in the name of Islam. They can't go out nor can they attend a school. They remain uneducated and weak, this is a method of exploiting them and this is also a

Tuesday, February 4, 2020

Benefits of Online Library Essay Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 500 words

Benefits of Online Library - Essay Example Statistics are often manipulated to convince people of a certain point of view, or to falsely frighten the public. Statistics might be hardly manipulated by presenting misleading representations, exploiting the tendency to assume that a correlation demonstrates causation, representing irrelevant facts based on what people belief not on what is true, providing anecdotes often emotional in nature and appealing emotion rather than logic. Statistics can mislead if it is not peer-reviewed. It is like a quality control. Without peer review, a report full of erroneous and misleading statistics can be passed off to the public as a scientific report. An example can be the anti-smoking movement these days that try to convince people through the statistics. Although smoking is hazardous to health but proving it by the means of statistics is not always correct. For instance, Japan has the world's highest smoking population having 67% or so of the population being smokers. It is also the world's healthiest nation. China has the second highest smoking rate and it is the second highest healthiest too. Some countries still consider statistics as confidential information that should not be disclosed because their enemies could use it to undermine the security and order in the country. We think that this is legitimate but this should not be used as an excuse to hide the statistics that have nothing to do with national security and we think that this matter should be discussed more thoroughly.

Monday, January 27, 2020

Globalization And Intercultural Communication Cultural Studies Essay

Globalization And Intercultural Communication Cultural Studies Essay What is Globalization? Globalization is a process of interaction and integration among the people, companies, and governments of different nations, a process driven by international trade and investment and aided by information technology. This process has effects on the environment, on culture, on political systems, on economic development and prosperity, and on human physical well-being in societies around the world. What is intercultural communication? Intercultural communication, more precisely then, is defined as the study of communication between people whose cultural perception and symbol system are distinct enough to alter their communication e.g. In China, KFCs Finger licking good was translated as Eat your fingers off. Chevrolet attempted unsuccessfully to market its Nova compact car in Latin America countries. In Spanish no va means does not go or it does not run. In todays global scenario governments, organizations and companies are getting involved more and more. And because of globalization there has been fundamental change in who, where and why we do business and it is not constrained by borders or distance. More and more people from the remote locations in overseas location or from different cultural backgrounds are chosen to run the organization. To secure success in todays globalised workplace there is a need for effective and clear intercultural communication. How people communicate, manage, work together, approach deadlines, negotiate, meet, greet and build relationships are important aspects of intercultural communication within the context of globalised business or organization. It is becoming much more related on two fronts 1. Businesses with a mix of cultures working together and 2.Businesses wanting to trade successfully abroad. It leads to bad presentation and lost deals if people are unaware of how to get along and get business done. For achieving business goals and higher profitability it is necessary to understand intercultural communication differences, manners, etiquette, protocol and communication styles. To achieve competitive edge it is necessary to know intercultural communication. It is necessary for people to get it right and get it right at the first time. Intercultural communication plays an important role whenever an organization looks for a new supplier, giving a presentation or negotiating a contract. In conclusion, the need for intercultural communication skill is obvious we are all working in an interconnected global economy and it is important to build good relationships with people from other cultures. Globalised world economy is having a positive effect on individuals and companies. People extend their inter personal skills, flex their creative muscle and learn new ways of doing things when they are forced to think outside the box. It is necessary to build a good relationship with people in todays interconnected global economy which tells us the need for intercultural communication is important. This leads to better business. Key aspects of intercultural communication: Perception: The internal process by which we select, organise and intercept information from the outside world is known as Perception. In other words, what we tend to notice, reflect upon and respond to in our surroundings is our perception and it is significant to us. Because of which no two person can have same perception of our surroundings. It is especially in the case if we interact with people who come from very different cultures different from our own. The way in which each one of us perceives the world is learned and is part of our own cultural experience. Certain kind of food or the responses like we have to going to see the doctor is the judgement we make and we all react to these different events in the way our culture has taught. Our perceptions are culturally determined and in turn influence the way we communicate. Beliefs: The judgements which we make about what is true or wrong is known as Beliefs. It is usually linked to objects or events that pose certain characteristics that we believe to be true with or without proof. E.g. we have beliefs about religion (God), events (meeting was successful), other people (she is friendly) or even about ourselves (I am hard working). Most of our beliefs are ideas about how things work, why things are the way they are, and where things come from. Many of our beliefs are concerned with providing an explanation for things which would otherwise be unpredictable or inexplicable, such as weather, death and romance. Values: Values are defined as an enduring set of beliefs that serve to guide or direct our behaviour. It represents the norms of the culture and specify, for instance, what is good or bad, right or wrong, rude or polite, appropriate or inappropriate. In other words they provide us with a set of rules for behaving , making choices and reducing uncertainty. Like our perceptions and beliefs, values are learned and hence subject to interpretation. When we interpret behaviour, an object, or an event, we are applying value judgements, which reflect our particular culture. Culture and Pragmatics and Interactional Norms Whenever there is any effect on cultural on communication, text structure are more affected then in the case of inter culture communication. The meaning of equivalent units in terms of contexts of use, and the sorts of interactional trajectories are established by the effect of culture. The culturally based nature of meaning in language use is seen in example, which features an exchange in English between an Australian child and his French mother. Thank you Son: Hi Mum thanks for picking me up. Mother: Thanks for picking you up! Did you think? I wasnt going to come? But Im your Mum; of course I was going to come. Its dark and youre little. Of course I was going to pick you up. In the example a child thanks his mother and the mother reacts negatively. The meaning of thanks for picking up leads to the contention of the issue. Thanking is a mark of appreciation in Australian cultural framework, which means appreciating for something thats has been done for ones benefit. It shows gratitude for the mothers action. But the mothers response in this frame does not make any sense: expressions of appreciation do not typically occasion expressions of anger within this framework. The meaning of thank you is different in the French framework. In the French framework, especially between intimates, thanking is not an automatic acknowledgement for something which is done by another for ones benefit. Rather in close relationships thanking is reserved for unusual or unexpected actions things which are additional to the normal relationships between people. The sons thanking is hearable as a sign that picking me up is not an anticipated act, but rather something extraordinary or strange something this child had not anticipated of the mother. The mothers reaction was towards the construction of the act that is being appreciated and concurrently of the other as the sort of person who would not pick up her son at night and not towards the thanking. An implied criticism is hearable in thanking of the mother. The conflict here is motivated by perceptions of what counts as an appreciable act. For the son, any beneficial act is appreciable but for the mother this is not the case. The translation of the following sentence is similar but it has different meaning in the Australian English and Polish sentences. Why dont you close the window? Dlaczego nie zamkniesz okna? The English version forms a polite request framed indirectly as a idea, while the other sentence imply stubborn and unreasonable behavior on the part of the addressee. The word to word translation may be same but it is different in the cultural context. Another example would be as follows, Pass me the book. Passe-moi le livre. The sentence in English enacts a relatively low level of politeness in terms of the social relationships, but the French example could be used in a considerably wider range of contexts. In fact, the form passe, which is the tu-form of the verb, encodes a close social relationship which would make example a more natural formulation of the request. In comparison with the following examples, Could you pass me the book? Pourrais-tu me passer le livre? After reading the example a feeling arise as the words in English sounds polite to the ears in the discussion between the family members over the wide range of topics. In the French example it implies where there is a close interpersonal relationship (tu) and it crucially involving more politeness. This type of constraints will be used, where the non-family members uses their interpersonal relationship (tu) to bring harmony among the group which is involving an effort of the addressee or it can be rejected legally. The construction of the words in passing of the book is a challenging task and there is the confusion between the structure and situation. In the communication between people, culture plays an important role and it influences the speaker to choose words in a particular language. This simple example proves, as in a social interaction in English, How are you is the most frequently used greeting words. The first question which comes in my mind is what is Globalisation? Globalization refers to the growing interconnectedness of different parts of the world, a process which gives rise to complex forms of interaction and interdependency. (Thompson 1995) Globalisation as a concept refers to both to the compression of the world and the intensification of consciousness of the world as a whole. (Robertson 1992) Globalisation refers to all those processes by which the peoples of the world are incorporated into a single world society, global society. (Albrow 1990) The second question comes in my mind is what is Intercultural Communication? Communication between two people from different cultures is said to be intercultural communication. It comes in to existence when a person from one culture tries to communicate with the person from another culture, a communication is understood. The potential for misunderstanding and disagreement is great whenever there is a cultural difference in these kinds of contacts. It is to be said that there is a relationship between culture and language. In other words, language is a guide to culture. Other scholars argue that language merely reflects, rather than shapes, our thinking, beliefs, and attitudes. Despite these differences in approaches, all scholars still agree that a close relationship exists between language and culture. Language plays very important role in both globalisation and intercultural communication. Whenever an organisation wants to start a new business it is important for them to know the local language of the host country. If an organisation does not have any idea about the local language, it will be very difficult for them to conduct business in that country and also it will be difficult for them to sell their product in the local market. Now days every organisation around the world is trying to recruit some local employees so that it will be easy for them to communicate with the local customers. It is also necessary for an organisation to the business etiquette of the host country. When I talk about etiquette it means dress, clothing, body language, gestures, dining, gift-giving, meetings, customs, protocol, negotiations, and general behaviour. Another important factor which affects globalisation is culture. It plays an important role for any organisation. If an organisation fails to understand the culture of the host country they could face the following cultural effects, Consumer behaviour Local demand Buying decisions Brand image. Knowledge of Native culture is useful when dealing with home markets but it has little value when dealing in foreign markets. Culture acts as a hidden entry barrier, but it can be overcome with cultural sensitivity, hard work quality. Culture influences managerial styles and management decisions. It also affects the nature of business negotiations. The example for the effect of culture on an organisation is as follows: McDonalds in India. When McDonalds entered the Indian market, it introduced itself as the American style fast food outlet. They priced their product according to the Indian customers attitude, thinking etc. They were one of the first international fast food outlets which were successful in India. The only mistake McDonalds made was they did not read the Indian culture properly. In India beef or cow is to be considered as God in many religions. And McDonalds use beef oil to cook their food. When the Indian consumer came to know about this fact, they started avoiding eating food at McDonalds. Because of this mistake, the brand image of the McDonalds was affected. The education system in India is totally different from Australian education system. In India, teaching style is very different when you compare it to the Australian style. In India, Prof. is the one who speaks in the class for the majority of time and its more of theoretical knowledge then practical knowledge. But when you see the Australian style of teaching, the student are given chance to speak in the class and ask questions whenever they have a doubt. And in Australia, there is a mixture of both practical and theoretical knowledge. So for any Indian student coming to Australia, its difficult for them to adapt to the Australian education system very quickly. It is also necessary to know the gesture or greeting in different country or different culture. For e.g. in India people normally greet by saying Namaste which means Hello in English. They would normally join their hands and say Namaste. But in Australia, people greet in different way i.e. they would normally hug and say hello or shake hands and say Hello. But in India people try to avoid the body contact with the other people when they are greeting them.

Sunday, January 19, 2020


Identify how the management works on the contemporary Issues In leadership Developing trust Build up a good trust is very important in Catchy Pacific and its departments. It can make every leader like a model or standard to their employees, so leader must be honesty, ability, good Judgment or willingness to share ideas with every employee; it can keep a good relationship between employers and employees.So, a good leader can show the positive Image and able to Inspire other employees. Catchy Pacific Is able to take responsibility to the social (charitable and donation or sustainable development) and able to build up a good trust to its passenger (provide well services, no delete) and employees (benefits and profits). Empowering employees Employee empowerment Is a strategy and philosophy that employees can make decisions about their Jobs.It helps employees own their work and take responsibility for their results. Top Manager in Catchy Pacific are giving their authority or empowerment t o the front-line managers such as customer service manager and subordinates employees such as flight attendant to make decisions of some unimportant things, such as Andre customers' complain with solve the problem or give some discount to the loyalty customer etc.The benefits of empowering employees can quicker responses to problems and solving the problems; and faster decision as subordinates employees do not need to report to their upper manager, it can be save more time and effectiveness and increased spans of control to address other problems, such as how to enhance the company profits.Cross-cultural leadership Cross-cultural leadership is deferent nationalities leader has different leadership performance to managing their employees. Catchy Pacific Airlines Is an International alertness company. It was 22, 200 different nationalities employees In the world (until August 2014) that would be a multiple cultural background in the company. The top manager level since the chairman of John Solar is an American; the CEO of Ivan Chug is a Chinese.For example, southerner American leading a group of from the northern American would be exercising cross-cultural leadership because of regional differences In However, a Korean leader managing a group of Korean employees in Seoul and a group of Korean employees in Bangkok may not be engaging in cross-cultural leadership because the leader and the led are separated by physical space and not y cognitive space. Gender differences and leadership There are male/female differences in managing positions in leadership.

Saturday, January 11, 2020

Deception Point Page 62

Pickering seemed to consider this a long time, gently stroking his tie. â€Å"And yet taking into account the amount NASA has to gain from this discovery right now, the apparent signs of tampering with evidence, and your being attacked†¦ the first and only logical conclusion I can draw is that this meteorite is a well-executed fraud.† â€Å"Impossible!† Corky sounded angry now. â€Å"With all respect, sir, meteorites are not some Hollywood special effect that can be conjured up in a lab to fool a bunch of unsuspecting astrophysicists. They are chemically complex objects with unique crystalline structures and element ratios!† â€Å"I am not challenging you, Dr. Marlinson. I am simply following a logical chain of analysis. Considering someone wanted to kill you to keep you from revealing it was inserted under the ice, I'm inclined to entertain all kinds of wild scenarios here. What specifically makes you certain this rock is indeed a meteorite?† â€Å"Specifically?† Corky's voice cracked in the headphones. â€Å"A flawless fusion crust, the presence of chondrules, a nickel ratio unlike anything ever found on earth. If you're suggesting that someone tricked us by manufacturing this rock in a lab, then all I can say is that the lab was about 190 million years old.† Corky dug in his pocket and pulled out a stone shaped like a CD. He held it in front of the camera. â€Å"We chemically dated samples like this with numerous methods. Rubidium-strontium dating is not something you can fake!† Pickering looked surprised. â€Å"You have a sample?† Corky shrugged. â€Å"NASA had dozens of them floating around.† â€Å"You mean to tell me,† Pickering said, looking at Rachel now, â€Å"that NASA discovered a meteorite they think contains life, and they're letting people walk off with samples?† â€Å"The point,† Corky said, â€Å"is that the sample in my hands is genuine.† He held the rock close to the camera. â€Å"You could give this to any petrologist or geologist or astronomer on earth, they would run tests, and they would tell you two things: one, it is 190 million years old; and two, it is chemically dissimilar from the kind of rock we have here on earth.† Pickering leaned forward, studying the fossil embedded in the rock. He seemed momentarily transfixed. Finally, he sighed. â€Å"I am not a scientist. All I can say is that if that meteorite is genuine, which it appears it is, I would like to know why NASA didn't present it to the world at face value? Why has someone carefully placed it under the ice as if to persuade us of its authenticity?† At that moment, inside the White House, a security officer was dialing Marjorie Tench. The senior adviser answered on the first ring. â€Å"Yeah?† â€Å"Ms. Tench,† the officer said, â€Å"I have the information you requested earlier. The radiophone call that Rachel Sexton placed to you earlier this evening. We have the trace.† â€Å"Tell me.† â€Å"Secret Service ops says the signal originated aboard the naval submarine U.S.S. Charlotte.† â€Å"What!† â€Å"They don't have coordinates, ma'am, but they are certain of the vessel code.† â€Å"Oh, for Christ's sake!† Tench slammed down the receiver without another word. 72 The muted acoustics of the Charlotte's dead room were starting to make Rachel feel mildly nauseated. On-screen, William Pickering's troubled gaze moved now to Michael Tolland. â€Å"You're quiet, Mr. Tolland.† Tolland glanced up like a student who had been called on unexpectedly. â€Å"Sir?† â€Å"You just gave quite a convincing documentary on television,† Pickering said. â€Å"What's your take on the meteorite now?† â€Å"Well, sir,† Tolland said, his discomfort obvious, â€Å"I have to agree with Dr. Marlinson. I believe the fossils and meteorite are authentic. I'm fairly well versed in dating techniques, and the age of that stone was confirmed by multiple tests. The nickel content as well. These data cannot be forged. There exists no doubt the rock, formed 190 million years ago, exhibits nonterrestrial nickel ratios and contains dozens of confirmed fossils whose formation is also dated at 190 million years. I can think of no other possible explanation than that NASA has found an authentic meteorite.† Pickering fell silent now. His expression was one of quandary, a look Rachel had never before seen on William Pickering. â€Å"What should we do, sir?† Rachel asked. â€Å"Obviously we need to alert the President there are problems with the data.† Pickering frowned. â€Å"Let's hope the President doesn't already know.† Rachel felt a knot rise in her throat. Pickering's implication was clear. President Herney could be involved. Rachel strongly doubted it, and yet both the President and NASA had plenty to gain here. â€Å"Unfortunately,† Pickering said, â€Å"with the exception of this GPR printout revealing an insertion shaft, all of the scientific data points to a credible NASA discovery.† He paused, dire. â€Å"And this issue of your being attacked†¦ † He looked up at Rachel. â€Å"You mentioned special ops.† â€Å"Yes, sir.† She told him again about the Improvised Munitions and tactics. Pickering looked more and more unhappy by the moment. Rachel sensed her boss was contemplating the number of people who might have access to a small military kill force. Certainly the President had access. Probably Marjorie Tench too, as senior adviser. Quite possibly NASA administrator Lawrence Ekstrom with his ties to the Pentagon. Unfortunately, as Rachel considered the myriad of possibilities, she realized the controlling force behind the attack could have been almost anyone with high-level political clout and the right connections. â€Å"I could phone the President right now,† Pickering said, â€Å"but I don't think that's wise, at least until we know who's involved. My ability to protect you becomes limited once we involve the White House. In addition, I'm not sure what I would tell him. If the meteorite is real, which you all feel it is, then your allegation of an insertion shaft and attack doesn't make sense; the President would have every right to question the validity of my claim.† He paused as if calculating the options. â€Å"Regardless†¦ whatever the truth is or who the players are, some very powerful people will take hits if this information goes public. I suggest we get you to safety right away, before we start rocking any boats.† Get us to safety? The comment surprised Rachel. â€Å"I think we're fairly safe on a nuclear submarine, sir.† Pickering looked skeptical. â€Å"Your presence on that submarine won't stay secret long. I'm pulling you out immediately. Frankly, I'll feel better when the three of you are sitting in my office.† 73 Senator Sexton huddled alone on his couch feeling like a refugee. His Westbrooke Place apartment that had only an hour ago been filled with new friends and supporters now looked forsaken, scattered with the rubble of snifters and business cards, abandoned by men who had quite literally dashed out the door. Now Sexton crouched in solitude before his television, wanting more than anything to turn it off and yet being unable to pull himself from the endless media analyses. This was Washington, and it didn't take long for the analysts to rush through their pseudoscientific and philosophical hyperbole and lock in on the ugly stuff-the politics. Like torture masters rubbing acid in Sexton's wounds, the newscasters were stating and restating the obvious. â€Å"Hours ago, Sexton's campaign was soaring,† one analyst said. â€Å"Now, with NASA's discovery, the senator's campaign has crashed back to earth.† Sexton winced, reaching for the Courvoisier and taking a hit right out of the bottle. Tonight, he knew, would be the longest and loneliest night of his life. He despised Marjorie Tench for setting him up. He despised Gabrielle Ashe for ever mentioning NASA in the first place. He despised the President for being so goddamned lucky. And he despised the world for laughing at him.

Thursday, January 2, 2020

Ethics And Social Responsibility Business Essay - Free Essay Example

Sample details Pages: 9 Words: 2640 Downloads: 8 Date added: 2017/06/26 Category Ethics Essay Type Research paper Did you like this example? Carlsberg Brewery Malaysia Berhad was established in December 1969. It has been around 43 years since it was established. Currently it is active in beverage industry. Don’t waste time! Our writers will create an original "Ethics And Social Responsibility Business Essay" essay for you Create order The products of Carlsberg included Carlsberg Green Label, Carlsberg Gold, Carlsberg Special Brew, Kronenbourg 1664, Kronenbourg 1664 Blanc, Somersby Apple Cider, Asahi Super Dry, Danish Royal Stout, Corona Extra, SKOL beer, SKOL Super beer, Jolly Shandy Lemon and non-alcoholic Nutrimalt drink. The type of business ownership is public Limited Corporation. The main rival of the firm are Guinness Anchor Berhad and Asia Pacific Breweries (Singapore) Private Limited. Carlsberg Green Label beer is currently competing with Guinness Stout from Guinness Anchor Berhad and Tiger beer from Asia Pacific Breweries Private Limited. In year 2002, the market of the Carlsberg Brewery Malaysia Berhad is 40.5 %, Guinness Anchor Berhad has 20.2% of market, Asia Pacific has 14.7% of market. Luen Heng Agency Sendirian Berhad and Spanish Cellar Sendirian Berhad stand market for 0.8% and 0.6%. The subsidiaries of Carlsberg Group are distributed globally, so it is proven that the company is active internation ally. Currently, it has around 700 employees in the company. Carlsberg Company has produced more than 40 breweries over the world. The Carlsberg Brewary Malaysia Berhad is subsidiary of Carlsberg brewery in Denmark. After Carlsberg carry forward to Malaysia, it stimulated beer industry in our country. Besides that, the Carlsberg Brewary Malaysia Berhad gives tangible and intangible profit to our citizen. The production of Carlsberg is also able to fulfill different customers. Part 2: The Manager as a Planner and Strategist Part a Vision: Regardless of the occasion and place, our Brands shall be the customers preferred choice. Mission: Carlsberg Brewery Malaysia Berhad is a Dynamic provider of the beer, stout and beverage brands, Bringing people together and Adding to the enjoyment of life. Major goals: To maintain the Carlsberg Green Label and obtain the highest percentage of market share for the next 5 years. To capture back the largest possible amount of smuggled beer, converting the purchasing of smuggled beer to purchase of Carlsberg Green Label for the next 5 years. To develop alternative advertising strategies for Carlsberg Green Label. Nice One: Great Beer, Great Stories that celebrates the beer drinking culture of storytelling. To intensify product positioning to overcome the effects of competitors positioning activities. To enhance the image of Carlsberg as a global provider of enjoyment over the next 5 years. Part b Yes, the firm is living up to its missi on, vision and goals. Carlsberg Green Label beer has more than 50% share of the Malaysian Beer Market since it was locally introduced in 1972. Although Malaysian Government has banned radio, television and outdoor advertising, the firm still has some alternative way of advertising. The firm spend about ten percent of its annual revenue on advertising and promotion campaign every year. It had launched a campaign called Nice One: Great Beer, Great Stories that celebrates the beer drinking culture of storytelling. The campaign is generally targeted at a larger audience rather than just the Chinese market. The main methods that the firm uses are press advertising, cinema and in-store advertising. With cinema advertising, it can create a powerful visual effect and build positive brand imagery further. Besides that, the firm had practiced some product-positioning strategies such as sponsoring of neon-light banners for business outlets like pubs, coffee shops and restaurants throughout Mal aysia. Part 3: Organisation Structure Part a The basic organization structure of Carlsberg Brewery (M) Berhad is functional structure. It means that employees in the company are grouped together according their occupational specialties. In the functional organization structure of Carlsberg Brewery (M) Berhad. The top position of the company is managing director followed by different department which includes marketing department, sales department, finance department, supplies and logistics department, human resource department, and general manager department. Each department has its own staffs which they will work according the functions of their department. There is not much interaction between the departments. Part b The organizational structure match with the strategies of the company. However it can be improved to bring maximum benefits to the company. For market strategies, Carlsberg Brewery (M) Berhad provides a wide range of beer varieties, included light, mid and full strength beers. Besides premium beers, Carlsberg Brewery (M) Berhad also produces lower-priced beers so it can be affordable by more customers and increases their approach to the market. The strategic business unit, Carlsberg Green Label is applying a multi-market approach in its market strategies which means the company will not only target on specific market segment. For example, the company is targeting from group of young consumers to old consumers and also both gender of consumers. For product strategies, Carlsberg Green Label is currently employing product-positioning strategies are as follows: Sponsoring neon-light banners for business outlets throughout  Malaysia. Sponsoring Maybank Malaysian Golf Open 2012 Sponsoring UEFA EURO 2012ÃÆ' ¢Ãƒ ¢Ã¢â€š ¬Ã… ¾Ãƒâ€šÃ‚ ¢ competition at Trophy Sunway Pyramid Shopping Centre on 7 April. In marketing, Carlsberg Brewery (M) Berhad is effectively promoting the quality of Carlsberg Green Label to the Malaysian market, hence it is improv ing and maintaining the current quality of the beer. Research and development is carried out on the current taste preference to evaluate the quality expectations of beer in the Malaysian market. In addition, due to the ban of advertising alcoholic drinks in the media, Carlsberg Green Label has been relying on other forms of indirect promotion. The integrated marketing communication strategies currently used by Carlsberg Green Label include promotion through logo placements such as, sponsorship of sport events and sponsoring banners and signage at coffee shops. In pricing, Carlsberg Brewery (M) Berhad is using one-price strategy. Same price for every purchasing of Carlsberg Green Label under the same conditions and in the same quantities for all customers. This makes the pricing process easier and is convenient for management. In addition, customers will not feel unfairness and bias over another customer because of different pricing issue. Besides, Carlsberg Brewery (M) Berhad is maintaining its price because of the high beer price in Malaysia and the cases for smuggled beer. Furthermore, price change may affect the reputation of the company, which may lead to outflow of customers to the competitors. On the other hand, Carlsberg Green Label is distributed to every convenient retail outlets in  Malaysia. For example, supermarkets, coffee shops, pubs, convenient stores like 7-11. Carlsberg Green Label is also distributed as a licensed product for in every single night entertainment outlets in Malaysia. The above strategies clearly shows that, there are varies of tasks to be perform by different department of the company. As a suggestion, Carlsberg Brewery (M) Berhad should not totally arrange their organizational structure to be functional. Although each department has different tasks and functions accordingly, but they share the same missions and visions of the company. Departments can share opinions and cooperate in some details of projects, com munication between departments is essential and helpful in achieving missions and visions of the company. Part 4: Leadership and Motivation In Carlsberg Brewery (M) Berhad, the health and safety condition of employees is paramount. The company acknowledge the importance of good health and safety practices on overall business performance and are committed to making continuous improvements to occupational health and safety measures at workplace. There is a Carlsbergs Health and Safety Policy, which stated the company are committed to taking steps to prevent and control risks that may affect the health and safety of employees. The Groups Central Occupational Health and Safety (OHS) Committee is the organization that ensure the main purpose of the Health and Safety Policy are reached. Safety environment is promoted to create awareness of the need for safety checks and drills to be adhered to in line with local and Group OHS standards. The policy indicate that continuous improvements should be made to enhance the companys overall OHS standards. In Carlsberg Brewery (M) Berhad there is a Learning Development (LD) program s. LD initiatives focusing on train up leaders leadership coaching training workshops. There is an external one-on-one coaching sessions for managers over a period of six months to sharpen the leadership skill of the management team. A mentoring system was introduced for more experienced managers to mentor younger managers to help build relationship and team work. More development opportunities and structured training for employees are created by the Carlsberg Sales Academy (CSA) since it was launched. Besides, Carlsberg Brewery (M) Berhad initiatives to continue build up great people. The Carlsberg Accelerated Leadership Development Programme (ALDP) are designed for the individuals with leadership capabilities. They will be promoted into key management positions as part of the Companys succession planning strategy. Carlsberg Brewery (M) Berhad provides platform to build up the relationship between employees. For example Thirst for Great Carlsberg Hour was introduced in 2011, participation of employees help to inculcate the culture of the company among the employees. C-day an event of Carlsberg was organized to acknowledge and reward employees. Activities are organized for the purpose strengthen the relationships between employer and employee and drive up the performances of employees. Furthermore, Carlsberg Brewery (M) Berhad also giving out rewards for great performances. Example: In recognition of the outstanding achievements of East Malaysia and Duty Free Sales teams and the excellent performance they performed in 2010, the senior management team took the teams on a team-building and sales incentive trip to Macau. Supply Chain Department also took a day-off in June 2011 enjoying great team-building moments. Excitement and surprises for the Supply Chain team during a day of great fun and great teamwork at Sunway Lagoon Theme Park. Continuous Improvement and LEAN (CI-LEAN) of Carlsberg Brewery (M) Berhad encourages ideas from the shop  ¬Ãƒ ¢Ã¢â€š ¬Ã… ¡oor which contribute to increased productivity, cost savings and efficiency. It involves all parties making continuous improvements and ensuring the smooth implementation of effective and sustainable systems. Carlsberg Brewery (M) Berhad provides opportunities for exchanging experiences across country. In 2011, Carlsberg Malaysia initiated an exchange to Holsten Brewery in Hamburg Germany, which is a part of the Carlsberg Group. Six members of the Supply Chain Department saw  ¬Ãƒâ€šÃ‚ rst-hand the CI-LEAN practices undertaken in Europe. In overall Carlsberg Brewery (M) Berhad, Offer a competitive and flexible opportunities to attract and retain the right people Provide a wide range of career and personal development opportunities Reward short-term financial performance Provide incentives to progress long-term business goals Reward individual effort that performs excellently Part 5: Managerial Control and Change Part a The output control used by Carlsberg Malaysia is to come out with one or more performance standards. For a successful company, the target set usually more than one in order to achieve a better result. In year 2011, Carlsberg Malaysia establishes plenty of goals for year 2012. The target falls in different categories such as Research and Development, procurement, logistics, consumers and customers, communities, brewing and bottling, and lastly sales and marketing. For example, Carlsberg Malaysia plans to make some improvements in year 2012 in sales and marketing. They plan to conduct e-Learning training on Marketing Communication policy to all Marketing personnel, creative, PR and event agencies. Besides, in order to avoid causalities caused by drinking alcohol, Carlsberg Malaysia plan to deliver a good message by communicate with the companys guidelines on No drink and drive to all sales and marketing employees. Lastly, they also develop collaterals to increase the awaren ess of the No drink and drive. Line managers and local Human Resources department are in charge for recruitment in Carlsberg Malaysia. Methods such as interviews and a standard test are used by them to evaluate the candidate. This standard test is a list of personality questionnaire, numerical and verbal ability test. Discrimination in terms of gender, race, age, disability is not allowed in Carlsberg Malaysia. They promote diversity. Process used by Carlsberg in recruitment includes the following steps: 1. The analysis in job value: Role and responsibilities are the main point to be analyzed. 2. The profile of the job: Provides profile with detailed description on the job and qualification required. 3. Candidate sourcing: Candidate sourcing is to target the right pool of candidates for every vacancy position. 4. Job interviews: A number of interviews may be asked to attend, depending on the complexity and level of the position. 5. Test or assessment: Standard test package being applied. Verbal feedback usually gives based on candidates results. 6. Grandfather interviews: Final interview that is informed to attend only for selected candidate 7. References: To check the facts from the candidates application or obtain information on the candidates performance. 8. Contract 9. Introduction: Introduce the roles of candidate, it will be informed before the job started. Part b The recruitment process is time-consuming and energy consuming. Lets said a company has 100 of applicant to interview in a day, the process of recruitment may make the interviewer and related employees to have a stress feeling and busy throughout the day. Imagine if all the 100 people need to be analyzed using all the steps in recruitment process, this may consume a lot of time and energy. Besides, the staff may be doing something meaningless when the people who apply for the job is qualified but already get a new job in another company. I suggest that Carlsb erg Malaysia can simplify the recruitment process by removing some steps such as candidate sourcing and test of assessment. This is because those information and ability of the applicant can be obtained by interviewing them. Part 6: Ethics and Social Responsibility Carlsberg Corporation is a well known company which produces alcoholic related products such as beer and it has become the one of the most preferred beer brand in Malaysia. Selling alcoholic products is one of the causes which lead to alcohol abuse that cause a lot of social issues including fighting and drunk driving. As a response to that, Carlsberg corporation have taken a lot of action to control and reduce alcohol abuse to maintain the reputation of the company. From the CSR(Corporate Social Responsibility) report 2011 of Carlsberg corporation, there is a lot of information about the contribution of it to the social. The business ethics of Carlsberg Corporation is to create a fair and transparent business practices which it allows the public to know more about the information of the company. To ensure ethical business conduct and compliance with laws at the global level, Carlsberg Brewery (M) Berhad adheres strongly to the Carlsberg Group Business Ethics Policy and Guidelin es. 200 employees have undergone training which equips them with the necessary policies to ensure ethical business relationships with customers, suppliers and stakeholders. The Carlsberg Corporation also practices 3R which are Reducing, Recycling, Reusing that saving the resources and reduce the damage to the environment. In 2011, 87.2% of the solid wastes including paper, plastic and aluminium generated from operations were recycled. Furthermore, the Carlsberg Corporation worked together with its business partner in Japan and has successfully started brewing Asahi Super Dry locally to reduce carbon footprints. Besides that, The Carlsberg Corporation is also advocating Responsible Drinking by introduced the Enjoy Responsibly campaign in 2011 in order to cultivate employees and consumers about the importance of drinking responsibility. Be Safe, Be in Control, Drink Smart and Stick to Age Limit -are the highlights of this campaign. Flyers on safe and proper drinking tips had dis tributed to the participant to increase the awareness of the participant. Sales employees of Carlsberg Corporation are providing taxi call cards, stickers for sales vehicles and personal breathalyzer devices to ensure responsible drinking behaviour. Moreover, The Carlsberg Corporation also provide educational opportunities for the younger generation by involving in various fund raising including I Love Chinese Education East Malaysia Charity Concert and The Carlsberg Hua Zong Education Fund. In the concert, RM2.6 million were collected for more than thirty Chinese schools in East Malaysia for academic purposes and upgrades of facilities and infrastructure. In order to improve the English languages proficiency, Carlsberg Malaysias English Essentials programme was launched for Tamil primary school. In conclusion, the Carlsberg Corporation has successfully done a lot of social responsibility to reduce its damage to the natural environment and social environment.