Monday, January 27, 2020
Globalization And Intercultural Communication Cultural Studies Essay What is Globalization? Globalization is a process of interaction and integration among the people, companies, and governments of different nations, a process driven by international trade and investment and aided by information technology. This process has effects on the environment, on culture, on political systems, on economic development and prosperity, and on human physical well-being in societies around the world. What is intercultural communication? Intercultural communication, more precisely then, is defined as the study of communication between people whose cultural perception and symbol system are distinct enough to alter their communication e.g. In China, KFCs Finger licking good was translated as Eat your fingers off. Chevrolet attempted unsuccessfully to market its Nova compact car in Latin America countries. In Spanish no va means does not go or it does not run. In todays global scenario governments, organizations and companies are getting involved more and more. And because of globalization there has been fundamental change in who, where and why we do business and it is not constrained by borders or distance. More and more people from the remote locations in overseas location or from different cultural backgrounds are chosen to run the organization. To secure success in todays globalised workplace there is a need for effective and clear intercultural communication. How people communicate, manage, work together, approach deadlines, negotiate, meet, greet and build relationships are important aspects of intercultural communication within the context of globalised business or organization. It is becoming much more related on two fronts 1. Businesses with a mix of cultures working together and 2.Businesses wanting to trade successfully abroad. It leads to bad presentation and lost deals if people are unaware of how to get along and get business done. For achieving business goals and higher profitability it is necessary to understand intercultural communication differences, manners, etiquette, protocol and communication styles. To achieve competitive edge it is necessary to know intercultural communication. It is necessary for people to get it right and get it right at the first time. Intercultural communication plays an important role whenever an organization looks for a new supplier, giving a presentation or negotiating a contract. In conclusion, the need for intercultural communication skill is obvious we are all working in an interconnected global economy and it is important to build good relationships with people from other cultures. Globalised world economy is having a positive effect on individuals and companies. People extend their inter personal skills, flex their creative muscle and learn new ways of doing things when they are forced to think outside the box. It is necessary to build a good relationship with people in todays interconnected global economy which tells us the need for intercultural communication is important. This leads to better business. Key aspects of intercultural communication: Perception: The internal process by which we select, organise and intercept information from the outside world is known as Perception. In other words, what we tend to notice, reflect upon and respond to in our surroundings is our perception and it is significant to us. Because of which no two person can have same perception of our surroundings. It is especially in the case if we interact with people who come from very different cultures different from our own. The way in which each one of us perceives the world is learned and is part of our own cultural experience. Certain kind of food or the responses like we have to going to see the doctor is the judgement we make and we all react to these different events in the way our culture has taught. Our perceptions are culturally determined and in turn influence the way we communicate. Beliefs: The judgements which we make about what is true or wrong is known as Beliefs. It is usually linked to objects or events that pose certain characteristics that we believe to be true with or without proof. E.g. we have beliefs about religion (God), events (meeting was successful), other people (she is friendly) or even about ourselves (I am hard working). Most of our beliefs are ideas about how things work, why things are the way they are, and where things come from. Many of our beliefs are concerned with providing an explanation for things which would otherwise be unpredictable or inexplicable, such as weather, death and romance. Values: Values are defined as an enduring set of beliefs that serve to guide or direct our behaviour. It represents the norms of the culture and specify, for instance, what is good or bad, right or wrong, rude or polite, appropriate or inappropriate. In other words they provide us with a set of rules for behaving , making choices and reducing uncertainty. Like our perceptions and beliefs, values are learned and hence subject to interpretation. When we interpret behaviour, an object, or an event, we are applying value judgements, which reflect our particular culture. Culture and Pragmatics and Interactional Norms Whenever there is any effect on cultural on communication, text structure are more affected then in the case of inter culture communication. The meaning of equivalent units in terms of contexts of use, and the sorts of interactional trajectories are established by the effect of culture. The culturally based nature of meaning in language use is seen in example, which features an exchange in English between an Australian child and his French mother. Thank you Son: Hi Mum thanks for picking me up. Mother: Thanks for picking you up! Did you think? I wasnt going to come? But Im your Mum; of course I was going to come. Its dark and youre little. Of course I was going to pick you up. In the example a child thanks his mother and the mother reacts negatively. The meaning of thanks for picking up leads to the contention of the issue. Thanking is a mark of appreciation in Australian cultural framework, which means appreciating for something thats has been done for ones benefit. It shows gratitude for the mothers action. But the mothers response in this frame does not make any sense: expressions of appreciation do not typically occasion expressions of anger within this framework. The meaning of thank you is different in the French framework. In the French framework, especially between intimates, thanking is not an automatic acknowledgement for something which is done by another for ones benefit. Rather in close relationships thanking is reserved for unusual or unexpected actions things which are additional to the normal relationships between people. The sons thanking is hearable as a sign that picking me up is not an anticipated act, but rather something extraordinary or strange something this child had not anticipated of the mother. The mothers reaction was towards the construction of the act that is being appreciated and concurrently of the other as the sort of person who would not pick up her son at night and not towards the thanking. An implied criticism is hearable in thanking of the mother. The conflict here is motivated by perceptions of what counts as an appreciable act. For the son, any beneficial act is appreciable but for the mother this is not the case. The translation of the following sentence is similar but it has different meaning in the Australian English and Polish sentences. Why dont you close the window? Dlaczego nie zamkniesz okna? The English version forms a polite request framed indirectly as a idea, while the other sentence imply stubborn and unreasonable behavior on the part of the addressee. The word to word translation may be same but it is different in the cultural context. Another example would be as follows, Pass me the book. Passe-moi le livre. The sentence in English enacts a relatively low level of politeness in terms of the social relationships, but the French example could be used in a considerably wider range of contexts. In fact, the form passe, which is the tu-form of the verb, encodes a close social relationship which would make example a more natural formulation of the request. In comparison with the following examples, Could you pass me the book? Pourrais-tu me passer le livre? After reading the example a feeling arise as the words in English sounds polite to the ears in the discussion between the family members over the wide range of topics. In the French example it implies where there is a close interpersonal relationship (tu) and it crucially involving more politeness. This type of constraints will be used, where the non-family members uses their interpersonal relationship (tu) to bring harmony among the group which is involving an effort of the addressee or it can be rejected legally. The construction of the words in passing of the book is a challenging task and there is the confusion between the structure and situation. In the communication between people, culture plays an important role and it influences the speaker to choose words in a particular language. This simple example proves, as in a social interaction in English, How are you is the most frequently used greeting words. The first question which comes in my mind is what is Globalisation? Globalization refers to the growing interconnectedness of different parts of the world, a process which gives rise to complex forms of interaction and interdependency. (Thompson 1995) Globalisation as a concept refers to both to the compression of the world and the intensification of consciousness of the world as a whole. (Robertson 1992) Globalisation refers to all those processes by which the peoples of the world are incorporated into a single world society, global society. (Albrow 1990) The second question comes in my mind is what is Intercultural Communication? Communication between two people from different cultures is said to be intercultural communication. It comes in to existence when a person from one culture tries to communicate with the person from another culture, a communication is understood. The potential for misunderstanding and disagreement is great whenever there is a cultural difference in these kinds of contacts. It is to be said that there is a relationship between culture and language. In other words, language is a guide to culture. Other scholars argue that language merely reflects, rather than shapes, our thinking, beliefs, and attitudes. Despite these differences in approaches, all scholars still agree that a close relationship exists between language and culture. Language plays very important role in both globalisation and intercultural communication. Whenever an organisation wants to start a new business it is important for them to know the local language of the host country. If an organisation does not have any idea about the local language, it will be very difficult for them to conduct business in that country and also it will be difficult for them to sell their product in the local market. Now days every organisation around the world is trying to recruit some local employees so that it will be easy for them to communicate with the local customers. It is also necessary for an organisation to the business etiquette of the host country. When I talk about etiquette it means dress, clothing, body language, gestures, dining, gift-giving, meetings, customs, protocol, negotiations, and general behaviour. Another important factor which affects globalisation is culture. It plays an important role for any organisation. If an organisation fails to understand the culture of the host country they could face the following cultural effects, Consumer behaviour Local demand Buying decisions Brand image. Knowledge of Native culture is useful when dealing with home markets but it has little value when dealing in foreign markets. Culture acts as a hidden entry barrier, but it can be overcome with cultural sensitivity, hard work quality. Culture influences managerial styles and management decisions. It also affects the nature of business negotiations. The example for the effect of culture on an organisation is as follows: McDonalds in India. When McDonalds entered the Indian market, it introduced itself as the American style fast food outlet. They priced their product according to the Indian customers attitude, thinking etc. They were one of the first international fast food outlets which were successful in India. The only mistake McDonalds made was they did not read the Indian culture properly. In India beef or cow is to be considered as God in many religions. And McDonalds use beef oil to cook their food. When the Indian consumer came to know about this fact, they started avoiding eating food at McDonalds. Because of this mistake, the brand image of the McDonalds was affected. The education system in India is totally different from Australian education system. In India, teaching style is very different when you compare it to the Australian style. In India, Prof. is the one who speaks in the class for the majority of time and its more of theoretical knowledge then practical knowledge. But when you see the Australian style of teaching, the student are given chance to speak in the class and ask questions whenever they have a doubt. And in Australia, there is a mixture of both practical and theoretical knowledge. So for any Indian student coming to Australia, its difficult for them to adapt to the Australian education system very quickly. It is also necessary to know the gesture or greeting in different country or different culture. For e.g. in India people normally greet by saying Namaste which means Hello in English. They would normally join their hands and say Namaste. But in Australia, people greet in different way i.e. they would normally hug and say hello or shake hands and say Hello. But in India people try to avoid the body contact with the other people when they are greeting them.
Sunday, January 19, 2020
Identify how the management works on the contemporary Issues In leadership Developing trust Build up a good trust is very important in Catchy Pacific and its departments. It can make every leader like a model or standard to their employees, so leader must be honesty, ability, good Judgment or willingness to share ideas with every employee; it can keep a good relationship between employers and employees.So, a good leader can show the positive Image and able to Inspire other employees. Catchy Pacific Is able to take responsibility to the social (charitable and donation or sustainable development) and able to build up a good trust to its passenger (provide well services, no delete) and employees (benefits and profits). Empowering employees Employee empowerment Is a strategy and philosophy that employees can make decisions about their Jobs.It helps employees own their work and take responsibility for their results. Top Manager in Catchy Pacific are giving their authority or empowerment t o the front-line managers such as customer service manager and subordinates employees such as flight attendant to make decisions of some unimportant things, such as Andre customers' complain with solve the problem or give some discount to the loyalty customer etc.The benefits of empowering employees can quicker responses to problems and solving the problems; and faster decision as subordinates employees do not need to report to their upper manager, it can be save more time and effectiveness and increased spans of control to address other problems, such as how to enhance the company profits.Cross-cultural leadership Cross-cultural leadership is deferent nationalities leader has different leadership performance to managing their employees. Catchy Pacific Airlines Is an International alertness company. It was 22, 200 different nationalities employees In the world (until August 2014) that would be a multiple cultural background in the company. The top manager level since the chairman of John Solar is an American; the CEO of Ivan Chug is a Chinese.For example, southerner American leading a group of from the northern American would be exercising cross-cultural leadership because of regional differences In However, a Korean leader managing a group of Korean employees in Seoul and a group of Korean employees in Bangkok may not be engaging in cross-cultural leadership because the leader and the led are separated by physical space and not y cognitive space. Gender differences and leadership There are male/female differences in managing positions in leadership.
Saturday, January 11, 2020
Pickering seemed to consider this a long time, gently stroking his tie. Ã¢â¬Å"And yet taking into account the amount NASA has to gain from this discovery right now, the apparent signs of tampering with evidence, and your being attackedÃ¢â¬ ¦ the first and only logical conclusion I can draw is that this meteorite is a well-executed fraud.Ã¢â¬ Ã¢â¬Å"Impossible!Ã¢â¬ Corky sounded angry now. Ã¢â¬Å"With all respect, sir, meteorites are not some Hollywood special effect that can be conjured up in a lab to fool a bunch of unsuspecting astrophysicists. They are chemically complex objects with unique crystalline structures and element ratios!Ã¢â¬ Ã¢â¬Å"I am not challenging you, Dr. Marlinson. I am simply following a logical chain of analysis. Considering someone wanted to kill you to keep you from revealing it was inserted under the ice, I'm inclined to entertain all kinds of wild scenarios here. What specifically makes you certain this rock is indeed a meteorite?Ã¢â¬ Ã¢â¬Å"Specifically?Ã¢â¬ Corky's voice cracked in the headphones. Ã¢â¬Å"A flawless fusion crust, the presence of chondrules, a nickel ratio unlike anything ever found on earth. If you're suggesting that someone tricked us by manufacturing this rock in a lab, then all I can say is that the lab was about 190 million years old.Ã¢â¬ Corky dug in his pocket and pulled out a stone shaped like a CD. He held it in front of the camera. Ã¢â¬Å"We chemically dated samples like this with numerous methods. Rubidium-strontium dating is not something you can fake!Ã¢â¬ Pickering looked surprised. Ã¢â¬Å"You have a sample?Ã¢â¬ Corky shrugged. Ã¢â¬Å"NASA had dozens of them floating around.Ã¢â¬ Ã¢â¬Å"You mean to tell me,Ã¢â¬ Pickering said, looking at Rachel now, Ã¢â¬Å"that NASA discovered a meteorite they think contains life, and they're letting people walk off with samples?Ã¢â¬ Ã¢â¬Å"The point,Ã¢â¬ Corky said, Ã¢â¬Å"is that the sample in my hands is genuine.Ã¢â¬ He held the rock close to the camera. Ã¢â¬Å"You could give this to any petrologist or geologist or astronomer on earth, they would run tests, and they would tell you two things: one, it is 190 million years old; and two, it is chemically dissimilar from the kind of rock we have here on earth.Ã¢â¬ Pickering leaned forward, studying the fossil embedded in the rock. He seemed momentarily transfixed. Finally, he sighed. Ã¢â¬Å"I am not a scientist. All I can say is that if that meteorite is genuine, which it appears it is, I would like to know why NASA didn't present it to the world at face value? Why has someone carefully placed it under the ice as if to persuade us of its authenticity?Ã¢â¬ At that moment, inside the White House, a security officer was dialing Marjorie Tench. The senior adviser answered on the first ring. Ã¢â¬Å"Yeah?Ã¢â¬ Ã¢â¬Å"Ms. Tench,Ã¢â¬ the officer said, Ã¢â¬Å"I have the information you requested earlier. The radiophone call that Rachel Sexton placed to you earlier this evening. We have the trace.Ã¢â¬ Ã¢â¬Å"Tell me.Ã¢â¬ Ã¢â¬Å"Secret Service ops says the signal originated aboard the naval submarine U.S.S. Charlotte.Ã¢â¬ Ã¢â¬Å"What!Ã¢â¬ Ã¢â¬Å"They don't have coordinates, ma'am, but they are certain of the vessel code.Ã¢â¬ Ã¢â¬Å"Oh, for Christ's sake!Ã¢â¬ Tench slammed down the receiver without another word. 72 The muted acoustics of the Charlotte's dead room were starting to make Rachel feel mildly nauseated. On-screen, William Pickering's troubled gaze moved now to Michael Tolland. Ã¢â¬Å"You're quiet, Mr. Tolland.Ã¢â¬ Tolland glanced up like a student who had been called on unexpectedly. Ã¢â¬Å"Sir?Ã¢â¬ Ã¢â¬Å"You just gave quite a convincing documentary on television,Ã¢â¬ Pickering said. Ã¢â¬Å"What's your take on the meteorite now?Ã¢â¬ Ã¢â¬Å"Well, sir,Ã¢â¬ Tolland said, his discomfort obvious, Ã¢â¬Å"I have to agree with Dr. Marlinson. I believe the fossils and meteorite are authentic. I'm fairly well versed in dating techniques, and the age of that stone was confirmed by multiple tests. The nickel content as well. These data cannot be forged. There exists no doubt the rock, formed 190 million years ago, exhibits nonterrestrial nickel ratios and contains dozens of confirmed fossils whose formation is also dated at 190 million years. I can think of no other possible explanation than that NASA has found an authentic meteorite.Ã¢â¬ Pickering fell silent now. His expression was one of quandary, a look Rachel had never before seen on William Pickering. Ã¢â¬Å"What should we do, sir?Ã¢â¬ Rachel asked. Ã¢â¬Å"Obviously we need to alert the President there are problems with the data.Ã¢â¬ Pickering frowned. Ã¢â¬Å"Let's hope the President doesn't already know.Ã¢â¬ Rachel felt a knot rise in her throat. Pickering's implication was clear. President Herney could be involved. Rachel strongly doubted it, and yet both the President and NASA had plenty to gain here. Ã¢â¬Å"Unfortunately,Ã¢â¬ Pickering said, Ã¢â¬Å"with the exception of this GPR printout revealing an insertion shaft, all of the scientific data points to a credible NASA discovery.Ã¢â¬ He paused, dire. Ã¢â¬Å"And this issue of your being attackedÃ¢â¬ ¦ Ã¢â¬ He looked up at Rachel. Ã¢â¬Å"You mentioned special ops.Ã¢â¬ Ã¢â¬Å"Yes, sir.Ã¢â¬ She told him again about the Improvised Munitions and tactics. Pickering looked more and more unhappy by the moment. Rachel sensed her boss was contemplating the number of people who might have access to a small military kill force. Certainly the President had access. Probably Marjorie Tench too, as senior adviser. Quite possibly NASA administrator Lawrence Ekstrom with his ties to the Pentagon. Unfortunately, as Rachel considered the myriad of possibilities, she realized the controlling force behind the attack could have been almost anyone with high-level political clout and the right connections. Ã¢â¬Å"I could phone the President right now,Ã¢â¬ Pickering said, Ã¢â¬Å"but I don't think that's wise, at least until we know who's involved. My ability to protect you becomes limited once we involve the White House. In addition, I'm not sure what I would tell him. If the meteorite is real, which you all feel it is, then your allegation of an insertion shaft and attack doesn't make sense; the President would have every right to question the validity of my claim.Ã¢â¬ He paused as if calculating the options. Ã¢â¬Å"RegardlessÃ¢â¬ ¦ whatever the truth is or who the players are, some very powerful people will take hits if this information goes public. I suggest we get you to safety right away, before we start rocking any boats.Ã¢â¬ Get us to safety? The comment surprised Rachel. Ã¢â¬Å"I think we're fairly safe on a nuclear submarine, sir.Ã¢â¬ Pickering looked skeptical. Ã¢â¬Å"Your presence on that submarine won't stay secret long. I'm pulling you out immediately. Frankly, I'll feel better when the three of you are sitting in my office.Ã¢â¬ 73 Senator Sexton huddled alone on his couch feeling like a refugee. His Westbrooke Place apartment that had only an hour ago been filled with new friends and supporters now looked forsaken, scattered with the rubble of snifters and business cards, abandoned by men who had quite literally dashed out the door. Now Sexton crouched in solitude before his television, wanting more than anything to turn it off and yet being unable to pull himself from the endless media analyses. This was Washington, and it didn't take long for the analysts to rush through their pseudoscientific and philosophical hyperbole and lock in on the ugly stuff-the politics. Like torture masters rubbing acid in Sexton's wounds, the newscasters were stating and restating the obvious. Ã¢â¬Å"Hours ago, Sexton's campaign was soaring,Ã¢â¬ one analyst said. Ã¢â¬Å"Now, with NASA's discovery, the senator's campaign has crashed back to earth.Ã¢â¬ Sexton winced, reaching for the Courvoisier and taking a hit right out of the bottle. Tonight, he knew, would be the longest and loneliest night of his life. He despised Marjorie Tench for setting him up. He despised Gabrielle Ashe for ever mentioning NASA in the first place. He despised the President for being so goddamned lucky. And he despised the world for laughing at him.
Thursday, January 2, 2020
Sample details Pages: 9 Words: 2640 Downloads: 8 Date added: 2017/06/26 Category Ethics Essay Type Research paper Did you like this example? Carlsberg Brewery Malaysia Berhad was established in December 1969. It has been around 43 years since it was established. Currently it is active in beverage industry. DonÃ¢â¬â¢t waste time! Our writers will create an original "Ethics And Social Responsibility Business Essay" essay for you Create order The products of Carlsberg included Carlsberg Green Label, Carlsberg Gold, Carlsberg Special Brew, Kronenbourg 1664, Kronenbourg 1664 Blanc, Somersby Apple Cider, Asahi Super Dry, Danish Royal Stout, Corona Extra, SKOL beer, SKOL Super beer, Jolly Shandy Lemon and non-alcoholic Nutrimalt drink. The type of business ownership is public Limited Corporation. The main rival of the firm are Guinness Anchor Berhad and Asia Pacific Breweries (Singapore) Private Limited. Carlsberg Green Label beer is currently competing with Guinness Stout from Guinness Anchor Berhad and Tiger beer from Asia Pacific Breweries Private Limited. In year 2002, the market of the Carlsberg Brewery Malaysia Berhad is 40.5 %, Guinness Anchor Berhad has 20.2% of market, Asia Pacific has 14.7% of market. Luen Heng Agency Sendirian Berhad and Spanish Cellar Sendirian Berhad stand market for 0.8% and 0.6%. The subsidiaries of Carlsberg Group are distributed globally, so it is proven that the company is active internation ally. Currently, it has around 700 employees in the company. Carlsberg Company has produced more than 40 breweries over the world. The Carlsberg Brewary Malaysia Berhad is subsidiary of Carlsberg brewery in Denmark. After Carlsberg carry forward to Malaysia, it stimulated beer industry in our country. Besides that, the Carlsberg Brewary Malaysia Berhad gives tangible and intangible profit to our citizen. The production of Carlsberg is also able to fulfill different customers. Part 2: The Manager as a Planner and Strategist Part a Vision: Regardless of the occasion and place, our Brands shall be the customers preferred choice. Mission: Carlsberg Brewery Malaysia Berhad is a Dynamic provider of the beer, stout and beverage brands, Bringing people together and Adding to the enjoyment of life. Major goals: To maintain the Carlsberg Green Label and obtain the highest percentage of market share for the next 5 years. To capture back the largest possible amount of smuggled beer, converting the purchasing of smuggled beer to purchase of Carlsberg Green Label for the next 5 years. To develop alternative advertising strategies for Carlsberg Green Label. Nice One: Great Beer, Great Stories that celebrates the beer drinking culture of storytelling. To intensify product positioning to overcome the effects of competitors positioning activities. To enhance the image of Carlsberg as a global provider of enjoyment over the next 5 years. Part b Yes, the firm is living up to its missi on, vision and goals. Carlsberg Green Label beer has more than 50% share of the Malaysian Beer Market since it was locally introduced in 1972. Although Malaysian Government has banned radio, television and outdoor advertising, the firm still has some alternative way of advertising. The firm spend about ten percent of its annual revenue on advertising and promotion campaign every year. It had launched a campaign called Nice One: Great Beer, Great Stories that celebrates the beer drinking culture of storytelling. The campaign is generally targeted at a larger audience rather than just the Chinese market. The main methods that the firm uses are press advertising, cinema and in-store advertising. With cinema advertising, it can create a powerful visual effect and build positive brand imagery further. Besides that, the firm had practiced some product-positioning strategies such as sponsoring of neon-light banners for business outlets like pubs, coffee shops and restaurants throughout Mal aysia. Part 3: Organisation Structure Part a The basic organization structure of Carlsberg Brewery (M) Berhad is functional structure. It means that employees in the company are grouped together according their occupational specialties. In the functional organization structure of Carlsberg Brewery (M) Berhad. The top position of the company is managing director followed by different department which includes marketing department, sales department, finance department, supplies and logistics department, human resource department, and general manager department. Each department has its own staffs which they will work according the functions of their department. There is not much interaction between the departments. Part b The organizational structure match with the strategies of the company. However it can be improved to bring maximum benefits to the company. For market strategies, Carlsberg Brewery (M) Berhad provides a wide range of beer varieties, included light, mid and full strength beers. Besides premium beers, Carlsberg Brewery (M) Berhad also produces lower-priced beers so it can be affordable by more customers and increases their approach to the market. The strategic business unit, Carlsberg Green Label is applying a multi-market approach in its market strategies which means the company will not only target on specific market segment. For example, the company is targeting from group of young consumers to old consumers and also both gender of consumers. For product strategies, Carlsberg Green Label is currently employing product-positioning strategies are as follows: Sponsoring neon-light banners for business outlets throughoutÃâÃ Malaysia.Ãâ Sponsoring Maybank Malaysian Golf Open 2012Ãâ Sponsoring UEFA EURO 2012ÃÆ'Ã ¢Ã ¢Ã¢â ¬Ã ¾ÃâÃ ¢ competition at Trophy Sunway Pyramid Shopping Centre on 7 April. In marketing, Carlsberg Brewery (M) Berhad is effectively promoting the quality of Carlsberg Green Label to the Malaysian market, hence it is improv ing and maintaining the current quality of the beer. Research and development is carried out on the current taste preference to evaluate the quality expectations of beer in the Malaysian market. In addition, due to the ban of advertising alcoholic drinks in the media, Carlsberg Green Label has been relying on other forms of indirect promotion. The integrated marketing communication strategies currently used by Carlsberg Green Label include promotion through logo placements such as, sponsorship of sport events and sponsoring banners and signage at coffee shops. In pricing, Carlsberg Brewery (M) Berhad is using one-price strategy. Same price for every purchasing of Carlsberg Green Label under the same conditions and in the same quantities for all customers. This makes the pricing process easier and is convenient for management. In addition, customers will not feel unfairness and bias over another customer because of different pricing issue. Besides, Carlsberg Brewery (M) Berhad is maintaining its price because of the high beer price in Malaysia and the cases for smuggled beer. Furthermore, price change may affect the reputation of the company, which may lead to outflow of customers to the competitors. On the other hand, Carlsberg Green Label is distributed to every convenient retail outlets inÃâÃ Malaysia. For example, supermarkets, coffee shops, pubs, convenient stores like 7-11. Carlsberg Green Label is also distributed as a licensed product for in every single night entertainment outlets in Malaysia. The above strategies clearly shows that, there are varies of tasks to be perform by different department of the company. As a suggestion, Carlsberg Brewery (M) Berhad should not totally arrange their organizational structure to be functional. Although each department has different tasks and functions accordingly, but they share the same missions and visions of the company. Departments can share opinions and cooperate in some details of projects, com munication between departments is essential and helpful in achieving missions and visions of the company. Part 4: Leadership and Motivation In Carlsberg Brewery (M) Berhad, the health and safety condition of employees is paramount. The company acknowledge the importance of good health and safety practices on overall business performance and are committed to making continuous improvements to occupational health and safety measures at workplace. There is a Carlsbergs Health and Safety Policy, which stated the company are committed to taking steps to prevent and control risks that may affect the health and safety of employees. The Groups Central Occupational Health and Safety (OHS) Committee is the organization that ensure the main purpose of the Health and Safety Policy are reached. Safety environment is promoted to create awareness of the need for safety checks and drills to be adhered to in line with local and Group OHS standards. The policy indicate that continuous improvements should be made to enhance the companys overall OHS standards. In Carlsberg Brewery (M) Berhad there is a Learning Development (LD) program s. LD initiatives focusing on train up leaders leadership coaching training workshops. There is an external one-on-one coaching sessions for managers over a period of six months to sharpen the leadership skill of the management team. A mentoring system was introduced for more experienced managers to mentor younger managers to help build relationship and team work. More development opportunities and structured training for employees are created by the Carlsberg Sales Academy (CSA) since it was launched. Besides, Carlsberg Brewery (M) Berhad initiatives to continue build up great people. The Carlsberg Accelerated Leadership Development Programme (ALDP) are designed for the individuals with leadership capabilities. They will be promoted into key management positions as part of the Companys succession planning strategy. Carlsberg Brewery (M) Berhad provides platform to build up the relationship between employees. For example Thirst for Great Carlsberg Hour was introduced in 2011, participation of employees help to inculcate the culture of the company among the employees. C-day an event of Carlsberg was organized to acknowledge and reward employees. Activities are organized for the purpose strengthen the relationships between employer and employee and drive up the performances of employees. Furthermore, Carlsberg Brewery (M) Berhad also giving out rewards for great performances. Example: In recognition of the outstanding achievements of East Malaysia and Duty Free Sales teams and the excellent performance they performed in 2010, the senior management team took the teams on a team-building and sales incentive trip to Macau. Supply Chain Department also took a day-off in June 2011 enjoying great team-building moments. Excitement and surprises for the Supply Chain team during a day of great fun and great teamwork at Sunway Lagoon Theme Park. Continuous Improvement and LEAN (CI-LEAN) of Carlsberg Brewery (M) Berhad encourages ideas from the shop ÃâÃ ¬Ã ¢Ã¢â ¬Ã ¡oor which contribute to increased productivity, cost savings and efficiency. It involves all parties making continuous improvements and ensuring the smooth implementation of effective and sustainable systems. Carlsberg Brewery (M) Berhad provides opportunities for exchanging experiences across country. In 2011, Carlsberg Malaysia initiated an exchange to Holsten Brewery in Hamburg Germany, which is a part of the Carlsberg Group. Six members of the Supply Chain Department saw ÃâÃ ¬ÃâÃ rst-hand the CI-LEAN practices undertaken in Europe. In overall Carlsberg Brewery (M) Berhad, Offer a competitive and flexible opportunities to attract and retain the right people Provide a wide range of career and personal development opportunities Reward short-term financial performance Provide incentives to progress long-term business goals Reward individual effort that performs excellently Part 5: Managerial Control and Change Part a The output control used by Carlsberg Malaysia is to come out with one or more performance standards. For a successful company, the target set usually more than one in order to achieve a better result. In year 2011, Carlsberg Malaysia establishes plenty of goals for year 2012. The target falls in different categories such as Research and Development, procurement, logistics, consumers and customers, communities, brewing and bottling, and lastly sales and marketing. For example, Carlsberg Malaysia plans to make some improvements in year 2012 in sales and marketing. They plan to conduct e-Learning training on Marketing Communication policy to all Marketing personnel, creative, PR and event agencies. Besides, in order to avoid causalities caused by drinking alcohol, Carlsberg Malaysia plan to deliver a good message by communicate with the companys guidelines on No drink and drive to all sales and marketing employees. Lastly, they also develop collaterals to increase the awaren ess of the No drink and drive. Line managers and local Human Resources department are in charge for recruitment in Carlsberg Malaysia. Methods such as interviews and a standard test are used by them to evaluate the candidate. This standard test is a list of personality questionnaire, numerical and verbal ability test. Discrimination in terms of gender, race, age, disability is not allowed in Carlsberg Malaysia. They promote diversity. Process used by Carlsberg in recruitment includes the following steps: 1. The analysis in job value: Role and responsibilities are the main point to be analyzed. 2. The profile of the job: Provides profile with detailed description on the job and qualification required. 3. Candidate sourcing: Candidate sourcing is to target the right pool of candidates for every vacancy position. 4. Job interviews: A number of interviews may be asked to attend, depending on the complexity and level of the position. 5. Test or assessment: Standard test package being applied. Verbal feedback usually gives based on candidates results. 6. Grandfather interviews: Final interview that is informed to attend only for selected candidate 7. References: To check the facts from the candidates application or obtain information on the candidates performance. 8. Contract 9. Introduction: Introduce the roles of candidate, it will be informed before the job started. Part b The recruitment process is time-consuming and energy consuming. Lets said a company has 100 of applicant to interview in a day, the process of recruitment may make the interviewer and related employees to have a stress feeling and busy throughout the day. Imagine if all the 100 people need to be analyzed using all the steps in recruitment process, this may consume a lot of time and energy. Besides, the staff may be doing something meaningless when the people who apply for the job is qualified but already get a new job in another company. I suggest that Carlsb erg Malaysia can simplify the recruitment process by removing some steps such as candidate sourcing and test of assessment. This is because those information and ability of the applicant can be obtained by interviewing them. Part 6: Ethics and Social Responsibility Carlsberg Corporation is a well known company which produces alcoholic related products such as beer and it has become the one of the most preferred beer brand in Malaysia. Selling alcoholic products is one of the causes which lead to alcohol abuse that cause a lot of social issues including fighting and drunk driving. As a response to that, Carlsberg corporation have taken a lot of action to control and reduce alcohol abuse to maintain the reputation of the company. From the CSR(Corporate Social Responsibility) report 2011 of Carlsberg corporation, there is a lot of information about the contribution of it to the social. The business ethics of Carlsberg Corporation is to create a fair and transparent business practices which it allows the public to know more about the information of the company. To ensure ethical business conduct and compliance with laws at the global level, Carlsberg Brewery (M) Berhad adheres strongly to the Carlsberg Group Business Ethics Policy and Guidelin es. 200 employees have undergone training which equips them with the necessary policies to ensure ethical business relationships with customers, suppliers and stakeholders. The Carlsberg Corporation also practices 3R which are Reducing, Recycling, Reusing that saving the resources and reduce the damage to the environment. In 2011, 87.2% of the solid wastes including paper, plastic and aluminium generated from operations were recycled. Furthermore, the Carlsberg Corporation worked together with its business partner in Japan and has successfully started brewing Asahi Super Dry locally to reduce carbon footprints. Besides that, The Carlsberg Corporation is also advocating Responsible Drinking by introduced the Enjoy Responsibly campaign in 2011 in order to cultivate employees and consumers about the importance of drinking responsibility. Be Safe, Be in Control, Drink Smart and Stick to Age Limit -are the highlights of this campaign. Flyers on safe and proper drinking tips had dis tributed to the participant to increase the awareness of the participant. Sales employees of Carlsberg Corporation are providing taxi call cards, stickers for sales vehicles and personal breathalyzer devices to ensure responsible drinking behaviour. Moreover, The Carlsberg Corporation also provide educational opportunities for the younger generation by involving in various fund raising including I Love Chinese Education East Malaysia Charity Concert and The Carlsberg Hua Zong Education Fund. In the concert, RM2.6 million were collected for more than thirty Chinese schools in East Malaysia for academic purposes and upgrades of facilities and infrastructure. In order to improve the English languages proficiency, Carlsberg Malaysias English Essentials programme was launched for Tamil primary school. In conclusion, the Carlsberg Corporation has successfully done a lot of social responsibility to reduce its damage to the natural environment and social environment.